Freedom essays

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Freedom essays

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Decazes, schooled as one of the ablest members of Richelieu's cabinet, headed the new Ministry. Among the members were moderate Royalists and a few Doctrinaires, including de Serre, who was named Minister of Justice. To end censorship, de Serre introduced three press bills, Doctrinaire in origin, having been drawn by de Broglie and Guizot. They defined press offenses as the use of the press to commit: (1) crimes against the government and the King, (2) acts inciting to crime, (3) crimes and misdemeanors against public morals, and (4) diffamation or criminal libel. All press offenses were to be tried before juries, excepting criminal libels of which the King's magistrates continued to have jurisdiction. Preliminary authorization and censorship were abolished; a mere notification by the gérant, or publisher-manager, to the Ministry of the Interior and the filing of a signed copy of the publication were the only formalities required. To guarantee the responsibility of the newspapers, however, their gérants were required to make deposits of security in amounts which were measured by the importance of the particular newspaper. Stamp taxes on publications were continued in effect at moderate rates. Publishers were to be held responsible for all articles published by them. Editors and printers might also be subject to liability, but only for intentional or wilful acts.

The debates in both Chambers in May and June, 1819 clarified the rights guaranteed by the Charte. The legal principle was emphasized that there were no press offenses as such; and that the acts of persons using the press as an instrumentality were to be adjudged by the ordinary principles of the criminal law. Passed by large majorities, this was the wisest and most liberal French press legislation until the press became free, after the downfall of the Second Empire. Nevertheless, the Ministry was criticized by Royalists and Republicans alike.

In the elections of the autumn of 1819, most of the members of the very radical Left were re-elected, including the Abbé Grégoire (who in 1792 voted for the abolition of the monarchy and the prosecution of Louis XVI). While the elections were taking place, insurrections broke out in various parts of Europe, particularly in Germany and Italy; there were political riots in Manchester and rumblings of revolution in Spain. Public demonstrations and riots were frequent in Paris itself. They were encouraged by the trend of the elections and were symptomatic of general dissatisfaction with a Ministry which had the favor of no party and the support of no group.

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